//Vitamin D and other science

Vitamin D and other science

US, NHI Guidelines

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-Consumer/

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/how-much-vitamin-d-to-take#How-Common-Is-Vitamin-D-Deficiency

About 42% of the US population is vitamin D deficient

82% in black people

70% in Hispanics

Public health England

https://www.gov.uk/government/news/phe-publishes-new-advice-on-vitamin-d

Vitamin D dose

IU mcg
400 10mcg
800 20mcg
1,000 25mcg
2,000 50mcg
4,000 100mcg
6,000 150 mcg

Facial Masking for Covid-19 — Potential for “Variolation” as We Await a Vaccine (NEJM, 14th September)

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2026913

https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp2026913?articleTools=true

Universal mask wearing might make mild or asymptomatic disease more likely

A form of “variolation”

Inoculation

Generate immunity and thereby slow the spread of the virus

Viral shedding from the noses and mouths of patients, presymptomatic or asymptomatic

Shedding rates equivalent to those among symptomatic patients

SARS -1

A strong relationship between public masking and pandemic control

SARS – CoV – 2

Recent virologic, epidemiologic, and ecologic data

Hypothesis that facial masking may also reduce the severity of disease among people who
do become infected

Long-standing theory of viral pathogenesis

Severity of disease is proportionate to the viral inoculum received

Typical rate of asymptomatic infection, estimated to be 40% by the CDC in mid-July,

Settings with universal facial masking, 80%

Also less severe and less deaths

Tiny Antibody Component Highly Effective Against COVID-19

https://www.upmc.com/media/news/091420-mellors-dimitrov-covid-ab8

Ab8 evidence of efficacy in vitro and animals

Monoclonal antibodies to begin UK trial

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-54120753

n = 2,000

2,000 more needed (me)

UK Recovery Trial

Neutralising antibodies

REGN-COV2 will be a new arm of the trial

Mixture of two monoclonal antibodies

US biotech company Regeneron

Regeneron, monoclonal antibodies, Ebola

Both attach to the spike of the virus at slightly different places

PFIZER/BIONTECH VACCINE

Albert Bourla, (CEO of Pfizer)

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8729507/Pfizer-CEO-says-coronavirus-vaccine-distributed-Americans-end-October.html

Making good progress with a COVID vaccine

60 per cent chance, will know by the end of October their vaccine was effective and safe

Trials have been carried out on 30,000 people, and that is expanding to 44,000

Then move on to FDA to certify

Already had ‘hundreds of thousands’ of doses ready to go

Mass manufacture in hand

UAE approves urgent use of China-developed COVID-19 vaccine after test on 31,000 volunteers

Phase I and II results June

100 percent of volunteers generating antibodies after two doses in 28 days

https://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1200995.shtml

6 weeks, 31,000 volunteers, 125 nationalities, phase 3 started 16th July

United Arab Emirates (UAE) emergency approval for use

China National Pharmaceutical Group (Sinopharm)

Department of Health of Abu Dhabi

Clinical trials, simultaneous in Bahrain, Jordan and Egypt

100,000 injections given so far, no adverse reactions, no infections

Mild and expected side effects

No severe side effects or complications

Volunteers, 1,000, chronic diseases

Volunteers now receiving their second shot

AI and supercomputing, trial results, fast

India

May fast track vaccine

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/india-considers-fast-tracking-covid-19-vaccine-vulnerable-groups/