//Second vaccine with high immunity

Second vaccine with high immunity

Moderna / NIH vaccine

mRNA 1273

94.5%

https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20201116005608/en/

https://www.modernatx.com/modernas-work-potential-vaccine-against-covid-19

Pfizer / BioNTech, 90 %

https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-vaccine-candidate-against

N = 43,538 participants

94 people infected so far

People catching COVID, starting 2 weeks after second shot

No data on disease severity

Food and Drug Administration, 50 % to be approved

Moderan trial

Double blind

4 weeks between shots

25,650 participants have received two shots

37 % from communities of color

42 % from populations high risk, (over 65 or diabetes, obesity, heart disease)

95 people contracted the virus, 11 of these had severe disuses

No children

Adolescents soon, moving on to children

Moderan vaccination group

5 people contracted coronavirus

Moderna control group (salty water)

90 people contracted coronavirus

11 of whom had severe disease

Differences between groups was highly significant

Results analyzed by independent data safety monitoring board (appointed by the National Institutes of Health)

Results were so strong; company felt an ethical obligation to offer the vaccine to the placebo group as soon as possible

Dr. Anthony Fauci

I had been saying I would be satisfied with a 75 % effective vaccine

Aspirationally, you would like to see 90, 95 %, but I wasn’t expecting it.

I thought we’d be good, but 94.5 percent is very impressive.

Both vaccines

More cases have acetated results

Studies continuing

Target the spike protein

Require 2 shots

Not found serious side effects

Sore arms, fatigue, fever and joint and muscle aches that last for a day or two

Vaccine storage and transport

Different formulations of lipid

Moderna

Minus 20’C (- 4 Fahrenheit)

Will last 30 days in the refrigerator

Ordinary freezer, six months

12 hours at room temperature

Pfizer

Minus 70’ C (- 94 Fahrenheit)

Roll out

Both about to apply for emergency FDA authorization

Roll out, Moderna

20 million doses ready by end of 2020

500 million to one billion doses in 2021

Manufacture in US, Switzerland, Spain

Two-month follow-up safety data, as (required by FDA), second half of November

i.e. watch trial subjects for two months after they receive a final dose for any side effects that may crop up

Then, will file for an emergency use authorization

Government authorising agencies, Britain, Canada, Europe

US, 100 million with options on 400 million more

EU, 80 million doses

Japan, 50 million doses

Canada, 20 million

Switzerland, 4.5 million

UK orders 5 million doses for spring

Qatar and Israel

In talks with the WHO, COVAX, distribution and a tiered pricing proposal

Roll out, Pfizer

50 million doses by end of 2020

US, 100 – 500 million doses

EU, 200 million doses

UK, 40 million doses

AZ / Oxford

EU, 400 million doses

UK, 100 million

Vaccines alliance for poorer countries, 300 million

Costs, Sanofi and GSK

Both expected to cost about £8 a dose

AZ / Oxford

£ 3 per dose

Costs, Moderna

US, government will buy, free to the public

US warp speed, already put in 2.5 billion, $24.80 a shot

Both companies making a profit

Moderna, overseas charge, $32 to $37 per dose

Probably about £42 per course

Costs, Pfizer

Operation Warp Speed has promised Pfizer $1.95 billion to provide 100 million doses

$19.50 per dose.

Unclear points

Age distribution of infections

Person to person reduction

How long immunity will last