//Vitamins D and K2

Vitamins D and K2

Latest on Vitamin D
https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng187/chapter/Recommendations

Basically, consider 400 units (10 mcg) per day

But, NHS mid Essex

https://midessexccg.nhs.uk/medicines-optimisation/clinical-pathways-and-medication-guidelines/chapter-9-nutrition-and-blood-2/3051-vitamin-d-deficiency-prescribing-guidance-nov-2018-replaces-separate-guidance-for-adults-children-and-in-pregnancy/file

Routine screening of vitamin D levels and prescribing of Vitamin D is not advisable.

Both clinical symptoms and risk factors must be present before measuring Vitamin D levels (25OHD).

As yet there is no clear evidence to prove the risks from non-symptomatic Vitamin D deficiency.

Adults

Vitamin D levels less than 30nmol/L (12ng / ml)

Oral capsules, 40,000 units (1,000 mcg or 1 mg) colecalciferol weekly for 7 weeks

(400 units per day = 2,800 units per week)

Vitamin D levels 30 – 50 nmol/L (12 – 20 ng / ml)

Buy your own, 400 units per day

Vitamin D levels more than 50 nmol/L (20 ng / ml)

Buy your own, consider, 400 units per day

Vitamin K1

Phylloquinone

Involved in blood coagulation (1929)

Found in plant foods like leafy greens

Vitamin K2

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminK-HealthProfessional/

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/vitamin-k2#what-it-is

Menaquinones

Mostly bacterial origin

Animal-based and fermented foods

Adult vitamin K Adequate Intakes, 90 -120 mcg

Fermented foods

Sauerkraut

Natto

High fat dairy from grass fed cows

Eggs

Animal organs

Gut bacteria

Antibiotics

Vitamin K might play a role, osteoporosis and coronary heart disease

Vitamin K-dependent proteins

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22516724/

Vitamin K2 supplements may improve bone and heart health, while vitamin K1 has no significant benefits

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5494092/

Promotes bone calcification

Three-year low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation helps decrease bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00198-013-2325-6

May prevent tissue calcification

Tissue-specific utilization of menaquinone-4 results in the prevention of arterial calcification in warfarin-treated rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14654717/

Vitamin K2 (MK-4) reduced blood vessel calcification whereas vitamin K1 did not

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14654717/

Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15514282/

K2 may help with dental health

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9076586/

Especially with vitamin D

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8466530/

Links with liver cancer

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16400650/

Links with preventing advanced prostate cancer

Dietary intake of vitamin K and risk of prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18400723/

Synergistic effect with vitamin D

Vitamins D and K as pleiotropic nutrients: clinical importance to the skeletal and cardiovascular systems and preliminary evidence for synergy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21155624/

Prevalence of hypercalcemia related to hypervitaminosis D in clinical practice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26995293/

Determine the concentrations of 25-OH-vitamin D at which the risk of hypercalcemia

N = 25,567

Hypervitaminosis D was defined at serum 25-OH-vitamin D more than160 nmol/L (64 ng / ml)

Results:

382 samples were identified as the first record of hypervitaminosis D

39 presented hypercalcemia (10.2%)

Some had 25-OH-vitamin D levels between 161 and 375 nmol/L.

(most subjects presented hypercalcemia at serum concentrations of 25-OH-vitamin D less than 375 nmol/L, 150 ng / ml)

In 15 subjects, hypercalcemia could be directly attributed to vitamin D

In no case, serum calcium achieved concentrations considered as critical values (more than13 mg/dl).

Conclusion

Hypercalcemia due to vitamin D represented less than 4% of the total hypervitaminosis D detected

Less than 0.1% of the tests performed.

Healthline

https://www.healthline.com/health/foods-high-in-vitamin-k#1.-Kale

No strong evidence proves that moderate amounts of vitamin D are harmful without an adequate intake of vitamin K. However, research is ongoing, and the picture might become clearer in the near future.