//Natural cross immunity confirmed

Natural cross immunity confirmed

Download free high-res copies of my two text books and the new posters. Any donations using this link help the work of campbell teaching.

Massachusetts will give you a $75 gift card if you get vaccinated or boosted


$75 gift card for getting vaccinated against COVID-19,

through Dec. 31st

Adults and children alike,

first dose, second dose, or booster shots.

Boston Public Health Commission.


Vaccine safety: content alleging that vaccines cause chronic side effects,

outside of rare side effects that are recognized by health authorities

Efficacy of vaccines: content claiming that vaccines do not reduce transmission or contraction of disease

Ingredients in vaccines: content misrepresenting the substances contained in vaccines

Endemic common human coronaviruses

About 20% of colds



Types 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1

usually cause mild to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses,

like the common cold.

runny nose
sore throat

general feeling of being unwell

Human coronaviruses can sometimes cause lower-respiratory tract illnesses,

such as pneumonia or bronchitis.

This is more common in people with cardiopulmonary disease,

weakened immune systems, infants, and older adults.

Cross-reactive memory T cells associate with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in COVID-19 contacts



Cross-reactive immune responses

Common cold coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2

The frequency of baseline cross-reactive T cells,

is correlated with the infection outcome following SARS-CoV-2 exposure,

and we observe significantly higher frequencies of cross-reactive memory T cell responses in PCR-negative contacts.

Here we assess 52 COVID-19 household contacts

Studied peripheral blood mononuclear cells

(Lymphocytes as opposed to neutrophils)

T cells specific for spike, nucleocapsid, membrane, envelope and ORF1 SARS-CoV-2 epitopes,

(Open Reading Frame, about a tenth of the viral genome)

These T cells cross-react with human endemic coronaviruses.

We observe higher frequencies of cross-reactivity

Memory T cells cross reacted with nucleocapsid-specific antigens significantly

Memory T cells did not seem to cross react with pre-existing spike-cross-reactive T cells

Our results are thus consistent with pre-existing non-spike cross-reactive memory T cells protecting SARS-CoV-2-naïve contacts from infection,

thereby supporting the inclusion of non-spike antigens in second-generation vaccines.


66% per cent of over-80s are double vaccinated

68% per cent of over-60s have been boosted

1.3 to 2.1 million lives at risk



November up to 26th

Cases 31,709 + 35,183 + 39,791

(only a few imported cases)

Of the 39,791 cases

3,709 were symptomatic

36,082 were asymptomatic

(National Health Commission)

Deaths, + 1 = 5,233